Friday, July 3, 2020

The legal and ethical implications of abortions and conscientious objection - Free Essay Example

Case Title: Samantha Broughton à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Term 2 Describe the case as concisely as possible. Samantha is a 15 year old school student with a previous history of miscarriage. She is in a sexual relationship with Tom who is 17 years old and has been prescribed oral contraceptives as a method of birth control. After failing to take the contraceptive as directed Samantha discovers she is pregnant. Samantha seeks help and advice from her GP (Dr Hannah Jenkins). At this consultation Samantha indicates to Dr Jenkins that she has discussed the pregnancy with her boyfriend Tom but not with her parents as they would not approve. Samantha tells Dr Jenkins that she knows she can have an abortion without her parentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s knowledge. It is at this point in the consultation that Dr Jenkins informs Samantha that she has a conscientious objection to abortion. She then tells Samantha that if this is her decision then she would have to be referred to a colleague, however, the only other female GP within the practice also has the same conscientious objection. Samantha is th en told the names of external clinics and advised to come back in one weeksà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ time with her mother if possible. Summarize the ethical issue(s) raised by the case. The main ethical issues within the aforementioned case include; medical practioners having a conscientious objection to abortion and requests for abortions in under 16s. Provide a critical discussion of these issues. Ensure the discussion is balanced and relevant. There are few medical procedures as argumentative and politically charged as the termination of pregnancy (BMA, 2014). Abortion is legal in England, Scotland and Wales (E, S W) as long as the provided criteria are met and is governed by the Abortion Act (1987). Unless an abortion is necessary to save a womanà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s life, doctors in E, S W have a right of conscientious objection under the aforementioned Abortion Act (Department of Health, 2014). At the same time, patients have the right to receive objective and non-judgemental care (GMC, 2013). GPs are for many the first point of contact for individuals seeking advice and support. In this case Samantha appears to be a capable and competent young women who has sought the help and advice from her GP regarding her current pregnancy. What is less apparent is whether the issues that arose due Samanthaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s consultation with her GP could have had a positive or negative effect on Samantha and her decision to go ahead with either an abortion or to proceed with the pregnancy. The following considerations will be looked at: Dr Jenkins behaviour in relation to General Medical Council (GMC) guidelines on conscientious objection Whether Dr Jenkins conscientious objection had the potential to cause undue stress for Samantha What the legal position on providing an abortion or abortion advice to girls under 16 years are The GMC sets out clear guidelines for doctors who have a conscientious objection to providing particular treatments because of personal beliefs or values (GMC, 2013). Upon Samantha indicating that she was considering an abortion Dr Jenkins did explain that she had a conscientious objection to this procedure and indicated that she would have to be referred to a colleague. Further to this she also indicated that her female colleague within the practice also had a conscientious objection to abortion. Whilst this does follow GMC guidelines Dr Jenkins failed to provide Samantha with enough information to arrange to see another doctor who did not hold the same objection. She advised of the names of several clinics without providing a named individual whom Samantha could speak to or to provide written information regarding these clinics with which Samantha could take away. The level of anxiety and stress that Samantha may have been experiencing during this consultation should also be taken into account and may have affected the spoken information which was retained (Kessels, 2003). Further to this the British Medical Association indicates that it is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“not sufficient to simply tell the patient to seek views elsewhereà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (BMA 2013) and as such it may have been more practical for Dr Jenkins to aid Samantha in arranging to see another named doctor. Dr Jenkins also deferred any referral process by asking Samantha to return in a week which could be construed as a further contradiction to the GMC guidelines which state that à ¢Ã ¢â€š ¬Ã…“arrangements should be made without delayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (GMC, 2013). During this consultation there was the potential to cause a level of undue stress to Samantha. She had approached Dr Jenkins for advice and left the consultation with no measures put in place to assist her. Although Dr Jenkins may have not construed her actions as undue stress and may have felt that asking Samantha to come back would allow her additional time to process her decision. Dr Jenkins did note that she appeared to have very limited support but advised Samantha to come back with her mother whom she had already noted would not approve. Whilst it is recognised that a level of support is required both before and after an abortion, Dr Jenkins should have also recognised that support can be given from whoever the patient feels comfortable with (GMC, 2013), giving consideration for both safeguarding issues and family dynamics within a given situation. The GMC sets out guidance for the advice and treatment of an abortion to those aged under 16 years without parental knowledge or consent (GMC, 2013). In the case of Samantha although she has not been provided with all the relevant information regarding an abortion it is reasonable to assume that she would be able to understand the risks and possible side effects of the procedure as she has already been deemed a competent minor (BMA, 2014) by Dr Jenkins. She has also been advised to speak to her parents although it may also be in her best interest to receive advice and treatment without fulfilling this criteria. Regardless of age, minors who can be deemed competent have the right to make choices regarding their health including their sexual health (Department of Health, 2004). Case law has been laid down most notable by Gillick (1986) and most recently by Axon (2006) which strengthens the argument for competent minors to be treated as autonomous individuals. It is important to note that as a doctor you do have the right to have your own personal beliefs as having true integrity is fundamental in your role (BMA, 2014). A doctors beliefs to having a conscientious objection to abortions must not however impact on the medical advice and treatment given to the patient (GMC, 2014). Whilst there is a conscientious objection clause in Section 4 of the Abortion Act (1967) for refusal of participation past case law (Janaway, 1989 and Doogan Wood, 2014) have questioned what the meaning of the words à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“participateà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“treatmentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  actually mean. The result of the case of Janaway infers that GPs cannot reasonably claim exemption for putting in place any necessary processes or providing advice to women who wish to undergo a termination. With the result from Doogan and Wood inferring that the scope of the word à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“treatmentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  is defined as direct involvement rather than the broad scope of any involvement. Conscientious objections m ust therefore not impinge upon the reproductive rights of women. Indicate what you would have done/recommend and why. Provide reasons to support your position. From the evidence presented I would not have acted in the same way as Dr Jenkins during this consultation. Although Samantha has been deemed a competent young woman, vulnerability associated with such a young age should always be remembered. I would initially ask her why she would be reluctant to visit a male GP and explain that he would be able to assist her fully regardless of his gender. If she still wished to see a female GP I would regardless of my own personal beliefs speak through all the relevant information regarding abortion including any risks and side effects with her and made sure that she had further information to take away. I would also ensure that Samantha was referred to a named individual who could provide further advice. My conscientious objection to abortion should not stop me from providing information and referral for abortion as I am neither participating nor being directly involved in the termination. I would then explain that as her GP I would be there for all her other healthcare needs. I would have further discussed any other support networks that she may have other than simply parental support and I would have ensured that she left with a plan of where her situation was going and what help we as healthcare professionals could provide her with. By doing this I feel I would have fulfilled the criteria set out by the GMC in relation to both conscientious objections and abortion advice in under 16s. References: Abortion Act 1967. British Medical Association (2014). Expression of doctorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ beliefs https://bma.org.uk/practical-support-at-work/ethics/expressions-of-doctors-beliefs [Accessed 13/2/2015] Department of Health (2004) Best practice guidance for doctors and other health professionals on the provision of advice and treatment to young people under 16 on contraception, sexual and reproductive health, DH, London. Department of Health (2014) Guidance in Relation to the Requirements of the Abortion Act 1967: For all those responsible for commissioning, providing and managing service provision, DH, London. www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/31 3459/20140509_-Abortion_Guidance_Document.pdf [Accessed 13/2/2015] Doogan Wood vs Greater Glasgow and Clyde [2012] General Medical Council (2013). 0-18 yearà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s guidance: Contraception, abortion and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). https://w ww.gmc-uk.org/guidance/ethical_guidance/children_guidance_70_71_contraception.asp [Accessed 13/2/2015] General Medical Council (2013). Conscientious objection. https://www.gmc-uk.org/guidance/ethical_guidance/21177.asp [Accessed 13/2/2015] General Medical Council (2013) Good Medical Practice, GMC, London. General Medical Council (2013). Personal beliefs and medical practice. https://www.gmc-uk.org/ guidance [Accessed 13/2/2015] Gillick v West Norfolk Wisbech Area Health Authority [1986]. Janaway v Salford Health Authority [1989]. Kessels RPC. Patientà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s memory for medical information. J R Soc Med 2003; 96 (5): 219-222. R (Axon) v Secretary of State for Health [2006].

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

John Hopkins OpenCourseWare (Free Online Classes)

John Hopkins University OpenCourseWare Basics: John Hopkins University offers dozens of free health-related courses as a part of its OpenCourseWare collection. Students can use OpenCourseWare material such as syllabi, lecture notes, and reading schedules to study topics such as nutrition and mental health. These are the same materials used in traditional courses offered at the renowned John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.Like other OpenCourseWare initiatives, the courses available through John Hopkins do not provide interaction with instructors and cannot be used to earn college credit. They are designed for self-study. Where to Find John Hopkins OpenCourseWare: All free online classes can be found on the John Hopkins Bloomberg OpenCourseWare website. How to Use John Hopkins OpenCourseWare: Most John Hopkins OpenCourseWare classes contain a brief overview in the lecture notes, not an entire transcript. Since the lecture notes are limited, you may want to consider acquiring the suggested reading materials and following the syllabus to get a more complete understanding of the subject.Most lecture notes and readings must be downloaded to your computer in PDF format. If you don’t have a PDF reader, you may download one from Adobe for no cost. Top Free Online Classes from John Hopkins University: Self-learners have dozens of John Hopkins OpenCourseWare classes to choose from. Popular general interest courses include:Critical Analysis of Popular Diets and Dietary Supplements – An overview of scientifically proven weight-loss strategies preparing learners to analyze diet plans.Environmental Health – A survey of health issues in relation to the environment.Family Planning Policies and Programs – An explanation of family planning issues in developing countries. Students studying these materials study family planning as a human rights issue and learn how programs are implemented in poverty-stricken areas.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Comparing Domes of Architect Sinan to Renaissance architect Palladio, Palladianism Free Essay Example, 2000 words

Apparently, the link between the central dome and half-domes illustrates the Islamic multifaceted implementation of the gorgeous ornaments. To say more, the dome was inserted with a huge passion of Sinan who tried to engrave the memory of the sultan Suleyman’s son Mehmet (Foster, 2004). What is more important, the construction of the columns supporting the dome in the mosque is also done in a symmetrical proportion, so that to shed light on the logic of the architectural form. Coloured stones and the mosaics incremented in the interior part of the dome of the Sehzade Mosque are done with the pure genius of Sinan. It means that the glory of the Ottoman classical architecture is rooted to the picturesque and full-of-wealth representation of the religious tradition throughout the Empire. Admittedly, Sinan felt his responsibility for praising Islam in terms of the architecture. Hence, his first mosque proved this idea right. Another Example of Sinan’s talent, as an archite ct is Selimiye Mosque. Built by Sinan in 1575 in Edirne, Turkey, the mosque is full of the architect’s idea of symmetry and geometrical concept of sphere-plus-square representation. We will write a custom essay sample on Comparing Domes of Architect Sinan to Renaissance architect Palladio, Palladianism or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now Looking at this mosque, an expert would see that Sinan viewed the use of the half-domes as obsolete for the whole embrace of the symmetrical bizarrerie of the building. Robinson (1996, p. 277) illustrates the peculiarity of the Selimiye Mosque by analyzing what came new to the Sinan’s idea of dome in the framework of the whole architectural environment around it, namely: â€Å"The dome, the largest in Ottoman architecture (102 feet in diameter), is carried on eight massive piers, which made the large half-domes of earlier mosques unnecessary. † Thus, the mosque in Edirne magnifies the use of the octagonal support for the spherical continuation of the building implemented in the use of the dome. Both examples of the dome in the architecture by Sinan take notice of the evolution in the creative work by the architect. That is to say, one admits the improvement of Sinan’s talent developed at a frantic pace. With no step back from hi s ideal of the dome as an illustration of the divine design of God’s mind, Sinan puts emphasis on the core idea of his architectural style as a huge contribution into the world’s architectural heritage. On the other hand, it is high time one drew parallel to the works by another 16th century architect from Italy. Needless to say, it is all about Andrea Palladio. He was well accurate in approaching the architecture by means of both theoretical and practical constituents.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Police Corruption - 969 Words

Police Corruption Second Essay for AJ 101 Krystal Lamas Victor Valley Community College Author Note This paper was prepared for AJ 101 for Mr. Ronald M. Field .M.A. Abstract Police corruption is a complex issue. Police corruption or the abuse of authority by a police officer, acting officially to fulfill personal needs or wants, is a growing problem in the United States today. Things such as an Internal Affairs department, a strong leadership organization, and community support are just a few considerations in the prevention of police corruption. Controlling corruption from the departmental level requires a strong leadership organization, because corruption can take place anywhere from the patrol officer to the chief. The top†¦show more content†¦Is there a solution to the police corruption problem? Probably not, because since its beginnings, many aspects of policing have changed, but one thing that has not, is the existence of corruption. Police agencies, in an attempt to eliminate corruption have tried everything from increasing salaries, requiring more training and education, and developing policies which are intended to focus directly of fac tors leading to corruption. Despite police departments attempts to control corruption, it still occurs. Regardless of the fact, police corruption cannot simply be over looked. Controlling corruption is the only way that we can really limit corruption, because corruption is the byproduct of the individual police officer, and police environmental factors; therefore, control must come from not only the police department, but it also must require the assistance and support of the community members. If a police administrator does not act strongly with disciplinary action against any corrupt activity, the message conveyed to other officers within the department would not be that of intimated nature. In addition it may even increase corruption, because officers feel no actions will be taken against them. Another way that police agencies can control its corruption problem starts originally in the academy. Ethical decisions and behavior should be taught.Show MoreRelatedThe Corruption Of Pol ice Corruption1484 Words   |  6 Pagesconcerning police officers, police corruption has become a major topic. Police officers seem to be making more questionable and unethical decisions according to the media. With these questionable actions, the idea that police officers are corrupt has been a steadily growing opinion. I will be focusing this literature review on the history of police corruption, mostly in major cities/countries; the nature of police corruption; the ethics involved in law enforcement; causes for police corruption and finallyRead MorePolice Corruption968 Words   |  4 Pageselection law violations; (13) corruption of public officials; (14) copyright violations; (15) computer crimes; (16) environmental crimes; and (17) receiving stolen property This assignment requires us to write a paper on a form of white-collar crime that we feel is the must dangerous form and why. I feel the most dangerous form of white-collar crime is police corruption, which is also def ined as public corruption. Public or police corruption is defined as; Public corruption involves a breach of publicRead MorePolice corruption770 Words   |  4 Pagesdefinition of Police corruption is a specific form of police misconduct designed to obtain financial gain, other personal gain, or career advancement for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an investigation or arrest. One common form of police corruption is taking bribes in exchange for not reporting organized drug or prostitution rings or other illegal activities. Another example is police officers misusing the police code of conductRead MorePolice Corruption3338 Words   |  14 PagesAnalysis of Police Corruption Police corruption is a complex phenomenon, which does not readily submit to simple analysis. It is a problem that has and will continue to affect us all, whether we are civilians or law enforcement officers. Since its beginnings, may aspects of policing have changed; however, one aspect that has remained relatively unchanged is the existence of corruption. An examination of a local newspaper or any police-related publication on any given day will have an articleRead MorePolice Corruption9501 Words   |  39 PagesPolice Corruption: A Perspective View Into the Definition, Cause, Harm Randy Botelho BSLS Capstone, LS498-01 – Unit 9 Professor Odim December 17, 2011 Thesis Statement Corruption in law enforcement is not victimless and creates a negative perception of the United States legal system. Introduction There are few professions in the United States that are entrusted with protecting society’s safety and system of laws that have been established throughout the course of AmericanRead MorePolice Corruption2291 Words   |  10 Pagesand discretion in police work produces great potential for abuse. Police corruption has been a problem in American society since the early days of policing. An ancient natural tendency of human beings is to attempt to placate or win over those in positions of authority over them. This tendency is complicated in today’s materialistic society by greed and by the personal and financial benefit to be derived from evading law. The temptations toward illegality offered to police range from freeRead MorePolice Corruption in Russia1430 Words   |  6 PagesPolice corruption is defined as when police, in exercising or failing to exercise their authority act with primary intention of furthering private or departmental / division advantage. Police corruption is a big problem all around the world especially in Russia. The Russian citizens have always been on alert when it comes to the police because of the bad laws, failure of knowing there right as citizens, and sticking up for there themselves. Russia is 133rd country out of 176 in the corruption perceptionRead MorePolice Corruption2879 Words   |  12 PagesStanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy corruption is defined as the abuse of power by a public official for private gain. Police corruption is the abuse of power by a police officer for their own personal gain. Police officers become corrupt mainly for monetary gain because most feel that police officers do not make enough money and they want to make more. Police corruption can be costly to society and it can even violate the rights of society. Police corruption can show favoritism to some and unfairnessRead More Police Corruption in America2871 Words   |  12 Pages Police Corruption in America The missions statement of police agencies usually highlight with pride the maintenance, promotion, and protection of peace, order, safety, and justified law enforcement in communities and the entire nation. Police officers are agents meant to bust crimes and get the bad guys. The police agency that the public use to lean on as the legitimate authority figure to come to the rescue however has created conflicting public perception. The misconduct of some policeRead MoreEssay on Police and Corruption1393 Words   |  6 PagesPolice and Corruption The police. Twenty-four hours a day, three hundred sixty-five days a year, this division of our government has a mandate to enforce the criminal law and preserve public peace. Understood in this mandate is an obligation to police everyday life matters that originate in the daily lives and activities of citizens within their community. Police interact in some form with the average citizen more often than any other government official. In society today the police play

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The American Dream By Lorraine Hansberry - 1570 Words

portunity to move up the career ladder, financial stability, having a family, owning a car, ability to receive an education, and having freedom and equality. Is this American Dream really attainable for everyone? Some groups of American citizens seem less likely to ever achieve this dream even if they work hard. Society and their circumstances are against them either because of their race, gender or class. Women, minorities, immigrants and the poor are left out of the American Dream. They may strive for the dream, sometimes even for a number of generations, but they will only get so far because of the obstacles they face from society, specifically from the individuals who already achieved the dream. How can it be called the American Dream when many individuals cannot achieve it? Or is it called the American Dream because many will be left dreaming about it their whole lives? Many families struggle to even get close to the American Dream. In Lorraine Hansberry’s â€Å"A Raisin in the Sun†, the Younger family struggled for money, despite having numerous jobs, and a descendant living space. Being African American in the 1950’s made it difficult for the family to move up in class to achieve the American Dream. In â€Å"A Raisin in the Sun† by Lorraine Hansberry, the Younger’s cannot fully achieve the American Dream due to societal obstacles they experience based on their race when trying to obtain a good paying job, buying a house and receiving an education. For the YoungerShow MoreRelatedThe American Dream By Lorraine Hansberry1373 Words   |  6 Pagesforward; therefore, the future can look much brighter and better.The American Dream can be successfully be accomplished if people take hard hits in life and are able to stand up and take up other challenges. In the play, A Raisin in the Sun, the Younger family, during the the time period of 1959, have to face discrimination because of their skin color. They also face losing of mon ey and finding the true meaning in the American dream. Therefore, the family realizes they need to suffer in order to succeedRead MoreThe American Dream By Lorraine Hansberry1741 Words   |  7 PagesThe American Dream From the first day that we can walk, talk, and think for ourselves, we are dreamers. These dreams can be nothing more than an illusion, or the foundations to the very lives we live daily. The American Dream is no exception to this, shaping the lives of millions of Americans each and every day, as it has done so for decades. We can see this through the works of many notable authors and their works. Some examples of these people are F. Scott Fitzgerald, Lorraine Hansberry, ThomasRead MoreThe American Dream By Lorraine Hansberry1837 Words   |  8 PagesThe concept of the American Dream has always been that everyone wants something in life, no matter if it is wealth, education, financial stability, safety, or a decent standard of living. However, everyone will try to strive to get what they want. The American Dream, is said to be that everyone should try and get what they hope they can get in life. In the play â€Å"A Raisin in the Sun† the author Lorraine Hansberry brought to us is about a family where each has an American Dream. The question is willRead More The American Dream in A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry1020 Words   |  5 Pages â€Å"Check coming today?† The Life Insurance check that Mama will soon be receiving is the source of all the dreams in the Younger family. A major argument that Lorraine Hansberry makes in her play A Raisin in the Sun is the importance of dreams. Dreams are what each member of the Younger family is driven by. Mama wants to have her own home in a nice part of town; she does not want her children growing up in a place with rats. Walter wants to have a successful business so he can surpass the povertyRead MoreAmerican Dream in A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry827 Words   |  3 Pagesnice house with a white picket fence. This was the cliche American dream. It is what most people think of when they think of the American Dream. The definition of American dream is the ideals of freedom, equality, a nd opportunity traditionally held to be available to every american. Well does it exist? If people work hard enough towards the dream yes, it does still exist. Moving on from the big picture, two contributions of the American dream are personal happiness and material comfort. For exampleRead MoreChasing the American Dream in A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry972 Words   |  4 Pages Chasing the American Dream in A Raisin in the Sun A Raisin in the Sun is a play about an African-American family living on the South Side of Chicago in the 1950s. This family is going through many struggles, both within the family and financially. The family is awaiting an insurance check. The story focuses on the individual dreams of each family member and what they want to do with the money. The family struggles to mend their family issues along with deciding what they will do with the money.Read MoreThe American Dream Not Ending Perfectly By Lorraine Hansberry, It s One Of Her Realistic Masterpieces961 Words   |  4 Pages A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry, it s one of her realistic masterpieces. The play expresses an African American family stand out in their respective to chase the American dream by experiencing contradictions and conflicts. Although in the play, the American dream not ending perfectly, the dramatis personae in the play, particularly mother Lena Younger, did not show any improvement by moving into a w hite neighborhood. To have a better understanding of Lena, I am going to interpret herRead MoreCompare And Contrast The Ways In Which The American Dream Is Presented Through Walter Younger In Lorraine Hansberry1711 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿Compare and contrast the ways in which the American Dream is presented through Walter Younger in Lorraine Hansberry’s ‘ A Raisin in the Sun’ and Willy Lehman in Arthur Miller’s ‘Death of the Salesman’ The American Dream is something many Americans desire. The desire to the mind – set or belief that anyone can be successful if they worked hard for what they’ve been yearning. It is considered to be a ‘perfect life’; it can be full of money, contentedness or even love. There are many divergent opinionsRead MoreRacial Segregation, By Lorraine Hansberry1248 Words   |  5 Pagesbut dreams – but He did give us children to make the dreams seem worthwhile,† once stated by Lorraine Hansberry. Racial segregation has been a huge topic in our society. Believe it or not, just a few decades ago African American people did not have the basic equality rights that white citizens were given. Something as simple as having a dream to become an author seemed out of reach; even impossible some might have said. Living in this kind of a world was unfortunately a reality for Lorraine HansberryRead MoreEssay on Compare Contrast a Raisin in the Sun1026 Words   |  5 PagesSun Essay In the play, A Raisin in the Sun, by Lorraine Hansberry, and 1961 movie written by Lorraine Hansberry and presented by Columbia pictures, one of the most important themes is the American Dream. Many of the characters have hopes and dreams. They all strive towards their goals throughout. However, many of the characters have different dreams that clash with each other. Problems seem to arise when different people’s dreams conflict with one another.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Another theme is racism. Racism

The Four Noble Truths Of Buddhism - 760 Words

Alyssa Hayes Professor Wayne Knight 2/27/2017 Hum 10 Tuesday Buddhism The four noble truths The Buddhists strongly believed in the four noble truths which are the foundation of Buddhism. The first noble truth, is the truth of suffering or (dukkha). The Pali word â€Å"dukkha† can be described using the term â€Å"temporary†. Things that are painful and things that are pleasurable are considered dukkha because they are temporary and do not last forever. In relation to human life, Buddhists believe that life itself is not permanent and neither are we as humans. The second noble truth is the reason behind suffering which is a â€Å"craving† or (tanha). The Buddhists, like many believe that human beings are never truly satisfied. Most humans spend their†¦show more content†¦Buddhist use meditation to see beyond the distractions of the world. Meditation where you focus on your breathing is proven to lower blood pressure and decrease stress. Loving- kindness meditation focuses on increasing kindness and love. This meditation is good for controlling your anger or a conflict with a loved one. For example, in loving-kindness meditation you can radiate feeling of love in all directions. You project your feelings of love north, south, east and west. â€Å"May all beings be safe, happy, healthy and live joyously.† Buddhists use this type of meditation to train their minds to be kinder. The goal is to develop feelings of love and kindness not only to others but towards yourself. There are three main techniques: mantras which are phrases that you repeat internally. Visualization, where you actually create an image in your mind of a person you are thinking of or yourself, smiling happily. And reflection, where you can think of qualities or actions that are good. Mediation is of much importance to Buddhism. Buddha himself attained enlightenment through means of meditation. But attaining enlightenment is not the only reason for meditation, many Buddhists use it to purify their minds. Buddha said,† He who is mentally concentrated, see’s things according to reali ty.† Chanting Chanting is the traditional way of preparing one’s mind for mediation. Some Buddhists use chanting for purposes of rituals. Buddhism does not considerShow MoreRelatedThe Four Noble Truths Of Buddhism1533 Words   |  7 PagesCritically discuss the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism, explaining the reasons or arguments given by Buddhism to support these Truths and discussing at least one objection that could be raised against the first Noble Truth and one objection that could be raised against the second Noble Truth. Buddhism see’s the Four Noble Truths as the Buddha’s way of explaining the truth of the human condition and are described as the essence of His teachings. The Four Noble Truths play an important part in understandingRead MoreBuddhism : The Four Noble Truths859 Words   |  4 Pagesspiritual practices, and traditions, Buddhism. Some of the spiritual practice of Buddhism have largely based teachings today across the world. The teachings consisted of â€Å"The Eightfold Paths,† â€Å"The Four Noble Truths† and some other breathings or meditations. The religion has taught their followers to shadow their own journey in order to assist them in their own lightning way. Some of the practice teachings include meditation and breathing exercise, and chant. Buddhism is a religion that has been aroundRead MoreThe Four Noble Truths Of Buddhism1642 Words   |  7 PagesMy Enlightenment Ever since I was a sophomore in high school, I have always had a particular interest in Buddhism. I have embraced the similarities that I have found within myself and the Buddhism religion. A few years ago, I was in a dark state of mind after my father had passed away. During my healing process, I felt that I was awakened in which I found my determination to search for my enlightenment. I spent a few weeks searching for what I thought was my path to end my suffering. I needed toRead MoreThe Four Noble Truths Of Buddhism1635 Words   |  7 PagesIn the history of Buddhism, suffering has always remained a key concept as it is the main reason for using Buddhist principles and practices to relieve ourselves from it. The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism inform us of the following principles: suffering exists in life, there is a cause to our suffering, there is an end to our suffering, and following the eightfold path can relieve our suffering. Traditional forms of Buddhism suggest that we c an overcome suffering by attaining Nirvana, or the stateRead MoreThe Four Noble Truths of Buddhism1018 Words   |  4 PagesDiscussion 1: Desire. Please respond to the following: Explain what you think your life would be like if you did not make decisions or act on the basis of your desires. The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism suggest that suffering is caused by desire, and to eliminate suffering, it is essential to eliminate desire. This concept is so simple, and yet so difficult to achieve. From the moment we wake up, desire consumes our thoughts. Desire can inspire us to achieve great things, but desire can alsoRead MoreThe Four Noble Truths Of Buddhism1248 Words   |  5 PagesIn Herman Hesse’s Siddhartha, the four Noble Truths of Buddhism are revealed throughout the journey of Siddhartha. The Four Noble Truths include: Life means suffering, the origin of suffering is attachment, the cessation of suffering is attainable, and the path to the cessation of suffering. Siddhartha discovers that in order to reach enlightenment, one must have experiences and struggle through these Noble Truths firsthand. The first Noble Truth â€Å"Life means suffering† is shown throughout Siddhartha’sRead MoreBuddhism: Happiness and The Four Noble Truths1442 Words   |  6 Pagespermanent. Gautama’s renunciation of an unsatisfying existence is a great model for anyone following the Buddha’s path. Gautama himself tried to find a teacher to help him find peace, however; this proved ineffective (Haught 47). Therefore, followers of Buddhism must find the way to peace themselves. No one can help them in this quest. One has to experience life on their own; following the rules of others will do nothing to bring about one’s own consciousness. For six years, Gautama joined a group of monksRead MoreThe Four Noble Truths of Buddhism Essay791 Words   |  4 PagesThe Four Noble Truths of Buddhism #65279; Dukkha is the first of the four noble truths of Buddhism. The word means suffering, but just to state suffering as the entirety of the first noble truth, is not enough because the expression of dukkha is the first truth that is needed for salvation. Moreover, dukkha is the conclusion of a logical chain of ideas that explains the life and death cycle of mankind. Before a person recognizes the truth of dukkha, he lives in a space of ignoranceRead MoreDiscussion of the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism2489 Words   |  10 PagesQ2. Outline and discuss the four noble truths: is the Buddhist view of existence optimistic or pessimistic? The question of the Buddhist view of existence being optimistic or pessimistic is one which is many have an opinion on. It could be said that the four noble truths provide the views of the Buddha in the way that life is led and more importantly, should be led. Certainly, the end goal is clearly optimistic, the attainment of spiritual enlightenment, or nirvana. However, the Buddhist viewRead MoreBuddhism, The Noble Eightfold Path And The Four Noble Truths1650 Words   |  7 PagesBuddhism was an incredibly intriguing religion to me due to the emphasis placed on the reality that surrounds us, it’s a rational religion based on peace, self-understanding and the ultimate goal of nirvana. Buddhist followers live their life with three main goals; morality, meditation and enlightenment. Ultimately the core teachings of Buddhism are The Noble Eightfold Path and The Four Noble Truths. It is their lives journey to understand, live kindly and find their inner-peace. In a world so full

Conclusion To Death Of A Salesman Essay Example For Students

Conclusion To Death Of A Salesman Essay In the play, Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, Linda Lomans character is viewed differently by many people. Some critics have seen Linda as a controlling mother figure who is actually the one to blame for this failure of both her sons and her husband. In this report I will defend this view citing specific examples from the play. Linda was undoubtedly the only one in control throughout the play. I believe that Linda tried to be a good mother and wife but she did not really know what she was doing. At the very beginning of the book we see that Willy, on his way to Boston, has come home because he was unable to concentrate on the road. And just as he was beginning to figure out why, she took his mind off the subject by suggesting that the problem was with the cars steering and not with him. Oh. Maybe its the steering again. I dont think Angelo knows the Studebaker.. And again: Maybe its your glasses. You never went for your new glasses.. By repeatedly doing this throughout the play Linda keeps Willy from facing the truth about himself. Also Linda gives Willy undeserved compliments, agreeing with him on his looks and ambition.; meanwhile, he has no true ambition. This causes Willy to build himself up into a great man. Another example of this is when Willy goes to see Howard Wagner about getting a job at home or at least close to home. While we realize how unlikely it is that Wi lly will get his wish, Willy does not realize this and Linda, who I believe is smart enough to realize it, supports Willy in excitement. Willy isnt the only one that Linda has affected. There is also Biff and Happy. Willy had taught Biff and Happy that if you were handsome, opportunity would come to you. Now while that doesnt have anything to do with Linda, she never challenged what Willy taught them; she simply agreed with everything that Willy said. Linda is able to manipulate Willy, by making his ideas seem greater by giving them her full support. An example of this, similar to what happened with Willy and Howard Wagner, is when Biff goes to see Bill Oliver about a job. The two of them have not seen each other in twenty years and when they did know each other Bill Oliver did not know Biff too well. Despite this, Willy thought Bill would recognize Biff and offer him a job on the spot. Hearing this Linda did not challenge Willy; she actually tried to quietly support him even though I felt she knew Biff would not be successful. During the majority of the play Linda hides her true self and contently agrees with Willy on most subjects. This makes it difficult to figure out what she is really thinking. Toward the end when Biff and Happy come home after leaving Willy at the restaurant, Linda drops her false personality and shows how she really feels. She explodes at her two sons for leaving their father alone at the restaurant during one of his fantasies. She places all blame on the two of them for Willy becoming the way he is. In actuality, it is Lindas own fault that Willy has become what he is. She has compounded this by also causing her two sons to turn out the way they did. In this report, I have defended the belief that Linda is a controlling mother figure who is actually the one to blame for the failure of her sons and of her husband. In the play Linda listens to what Willy has to say and never stops him even though she knows what he says is wrong. This play is really about how Linda Loman has caused her husband to go insane and corrupted the minds of her children. .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0 , .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0 .postImageUrl , .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0 , .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0:hover , .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0:visited , .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0:active { border:0!important; } .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0:active , .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0 .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud1a345e3e5565a82ba368550fb1e15f0:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Genetics EssayBibliography: